“Cape Town is running out of water”, big fucking whoop!

Jackson Karanjau

Earths waters divided according to their chemical properties and availability.

Why is it happening now? Why the publicity? Neither of these questions is bugging me, hell, scrap “Cape Town” from the headline and insert “Murang’a” (a town in central Kenya) or any other densely populated location and one fundamental question remains. How? How the fuck does a town run out of water?

If you could collect all the water on our blue planet you will end up with a sphere the size of our moon, of which 97%  is saline water and 3% fresh liquid water. The fact that 9 billion homo sapiens cannot share 10 quintillion Litres among themselves is a big fucking joke,  that’s 1.1 billion Litres per person! Imagine having 58,000 water bowsers filled with crystal clear ready to drink liquid at your disposal at all times? Well, even one water bowser will do, leave the other…

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Stephen Hawking Part 2

Jackson Karanjau

To add on to the previous statistical mess (discussed earlier), interactions between particles had no specific known order. For instance as light (photon) travels from an object to your eye, during transit it can split to form both an electron (-ve) and a positron (+ve charge/antimatter particle equivalent of an electron). And later these two particles (electron and positron) can re-combine, annihilating each other to give off energy in form of light (photon). Ad infinitum ways of interactions.

Richard Feynman came along and tamed these interaction behaviours, he proposed that quantum particles were lazy, and that they interacted using the easiest route/means possible (the Principle of Least Action). Using his path integral theory, he generated the so called Feynman diagrams to show these interactions. In these diagrams, antimatter was a particle moving backwards in time. At least the interactions reduced.

So you cannot predict precisely what happens to a photon…

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Stephen Hawking Part 1

Jackson Karanjau

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Physics is the study of properties of matter and energy. The law of conservation of energy which states, “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed from one form to another” is one of the basic rules that govern our understanding of physics. But what is matter? What is space? What is energy? and, Who is Stephen Hawking?

First off, our only source of matter has known to be supernovae, these are violent explosive events by gigantic stars (hundreds or so times larger than our sun) that expel material outwards into space and later these materials recollect under gravity to forge new worlds. Here on Earth, humans (star dust) have been on a quest of manipulating matter from the macroscopic scale to the quantum level, driven by curiosity and backed-up with pain staking calculations.

It all started…

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The Science Supremacy Between Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein

Science as a dynamic research field has been rife of supremacy.But to stick to the script,the competition will never affect their status (i.e. Isaac’s and Einstein’s) and real value to the world.

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton

Newton had the more direct engineering applications.Every machine in the Industrial Revolution owes it’s origin to Newtonian Laws.Before then engineering was a haphazard enterprise,rules of thumb and guesswork dominated.

Einstein’s advances to gravitation are intellectual sky scrapers but of much lesser practical interest.His contributions to quantum mechanics are absolutely invaluable.His work in stimulated emission led to the laser and a change to the whole world.
Isaac Newton has influenced us more because he invented calculus [though that is a subject of debate.Some argue that it was Leibnitz ].

Einstein founded some his work on basis of Newtonian work.There is no way Einstein could have figured out that his field equation was equal to the Newtonian in weal field limit without reference to Newtonian Physics.
Before Isaac Newton,laws of nature were absurd.He published a single book containing all laws of motion.principles of energy and work,gravitational laws and Kepler’s Laws.He made up for the loss that were caused by over 2000 years of Aristotelian pseudoscience.He defeated the army of scientific ignorance, single-handedly.
It is him who pulled us out of scientific mud.

albert einstein

Albert Einstein

Albert on the other hand,was a rebel by cause.He published three great papers on Brownian motion,photoelectric effect and special relativity which shattered the idea of absolute time that had been given by Sir Isaac.

Both of these physicists changed our view of Physics in a radical way.They both introduced paradigm shifts in our view of how the world works.

Einstein usually played the cello to unwind which was essential for thinking.Newton had to take a break in his studies.He went to the country side to chill and think properly about his work.Einstein’s thinking was truly bizarre no doubt.He asked the right questions which is more important than finding the right answers.
Einstein showed that Newton’s Law of gravity was incomplete.Newton’s Laws suffice to explain phenomena such as orbits of planets,trajectory of bullets, how fast objects will fall to the earth et al.Albert’s General Relativity goes beyond that to explain gravity in terms of curvature of space time.Newton never thought of a connection between space and time.

Isaac Newton,I could blatantly say is “ The Father of Ancient Physics” while Albert Einstein is the “Father of Modern Physics” . Albert Einstein is known for general relativity,special relativity,photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, mass-energy equivalence, Einstein field equations, unified field theory and Bose-Einstein Statistics which are all under Physics. Isaac Newton was known for Calculus, Laws of Motion,Universal Gravitation, Optics and General Contribution to the Power Series.
The material presented in class today is more abstract thanks to Einstein’ s contributions.Newton’s Theories are less polished because they use advanced mathematics.

Einstein’s genius was not as great as his will power to persevere with his work.He once had an honest admission of his own shortcoming when he said “Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics,for I can assure you that mine are far greater.”

Isaac Newton was one of the preeminent mathematicians of his generation.He was a giant and his tools are too heavy for anyone else to lift. Mathematician P.S.Laplace said this of Isaac “There is only one universe and it has only one set of laws,and there will only ever be one man who discovered those laws.”
Newton’s contributions was the centerpiece of all western intellectualism for centuries way after his death.Newton used a method that basically identical to calculus and differential equations to solve problems related to planetary motions in order to prove that a force that varied as the inverse square of the distance would imply Kepler’s Laws.He presented it in terms of classic synthetic geometry, with proofs that are at a level of complexity and power unmatched before.Newton certainly had a greater genius.

Science is a mountain to which some people bring grains of salt,some people bring massive rocks.You can’t know which is better.The discussion of who was greater or better has no point.It is an insult to the memory of these two great scientists.
They are remembered for their work in theoretical physics although they were both grade A experimentalists.Classical Theoretical Physics uses scientific methods that will always be difficult to analyze.It’s convenient but non-essential for the production of technology.

Newton accurately predicted the speed of sound in air,and with decent accuracy predicted the size of oblate bulge around the equator of the earth.Albert predicted the visibility of an astronomical object that shouldn’t have been visible during an eclipse,due to gravitational lensing.

Newton’s Calculus is probably the greatest contribution to science by any one single man.However both their theoretical contributions are nearly equal.
But the greatest victory for Einstein was explaining General Relativity that punched a hole in Newton’s Logic of Gravitation.